Restricting Access to National LiDAR: Is it worth it?

Policy makers in many countries are debating whether it is worthwhile to open their National LiDAR holdings – collected with tax-payer money – for free (or cheap) open access or whether they should continue to restrict access and charge potential users of the data to recoup expenses. Most would agree that hurdle-free, instant online access allows to exploit this valuable resource to the fullest and to maximize its benefit to the citizens. But some argue that opening this data eliminates the revenue stream the government needs to finance future surveys. Is this really true? No!

On November 21st, 2014 Louise Huby made this “Freedom of Information” request to the Environment Agency which are responsible for collecting, processing, and selling LiDAR data and derivatives for England with a focus on flood mapping applications. This seems to mainly be handled by the Environment Agency Geomatics, a specialist business unit within the Environment Agency.

Dear Environment Agency,
Please could you provide me with a breakdown by year of
all revenue made from the sale of LiDAR Data?
Yours faithfully,
Louise Huby

Later she added

Please could you provide me with a breakdown by year
of all revenue made from the sale of LiDAR Data?
Could you provide me with the information requested for
the following years: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009,
2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014.

A week later, on November 28th, Louise Huby received this answer:

EA_annual_sales_turnover

Hence the annual sales turnover (*) for LiDAR data was around £323,000 per year between 2007 and 2014.  It would be interesting to know how the annual average of £323,000 divides up further in terms of delivered products (raw LiDAR points or derivative), individual sale volume, price per square kilometer, type of customer, … Another request anyone?

(*) Sales turnover is the total amount of revenue generated during the calculation period. The revenue included in this calculation is from both cash sales and credit sales.

According to Wikipedia, the Environment Agency had an operational budget of £1,025,000,000 in 2007/08 (about half of this for flood risk management). This means the renevue from LiDAR sales is equivalent to 0.03 percent of the Agencies’s operating budget. I find this number shockingly low. Is this meager sales revenue an acceptable reason to keep the LiDAR locked up and inaccessible to the public?

Finland opened its LiDAR data in May 2012 and Denmark freed their national holdings in March 2013. Also Holland has turned around 180 degrees on its original LiDAR access policy by releasing its comprehensive AHN2 National LiDAR data set (including the raw point cloud) as free and open online data that was at first guarded and sold at high cost. I was given several reasons for this:
  • The main customer of LiDAR are the many branches of government from municipalities to federal agencies who often did not use it before, because it was “too difficult to obtain”. If someone needed geospatial data to make a decision but first had to fill out lots of paperwork and justification forms, possibly find a budget, and wait weeks for the delivery, then many questions had become irrelevant by the time the data arrived and decision were made without or with less good data.
  • Open LiDAR brings a bigger “return of investment” because the data – whose value is highly inflationary – gets used immediately for all purposes and not only when the anticipated potential of exploiting it sufficiently outweighs the upfront investment in time and money for aquiring it.
  • New business cases become worthwhile for which the LiDAR becomes “raw material” used to create new products and provide new services. This creates additional high-tech companies that pay taxes and desirable high-skilled jobs that would otherwise not exist. This can only happen if the resource “LiDAR” is either free or very cheap. It benefits both government and citizens as additional services and products are becoming available.
  • Overall: faster, better, cheaper service for all, full exploitation of the available resource, and higher return (even financially) in the long run.
One of the biggest drawbacks of trying to monetize the LiDAR is not only that there will be fewer services and products created by private sector businesses … but they will also be much more expensive. Those companies that took the risk to buy the data in the first place will charge a high premium on their services and products. And their biggest customer will be the government. Hence, an initial sale (quick money) will lead to years of high expenses for the government when it has to buy back the derived data products and services … costing many times more than was earned in the initial data sales.
In contrast, if the data is free for commercial use, then (a) the industry can only charge for the added value, (b) many more business cases suddenly make sense and even smaller added-value service or product can be offered, and (c) existing data is exploited for all decisions it is needed, (d) other agencies, universities, and private companies can focus on collecting complementing (instead of duplicate) data, …
To summarize: Opening data for free (or cheap) online access is seen as more cost-effective in the long run. It also allows the government to make better decisions, provide the citizens better service, and assures their national geospatial data holdings are exploited to the fullest …
Here some further reading on this topic by MetroGIS based on ideas of the NSGIC (National States Geographic Information Council) who is committed to efficient government through adoption of geospatial information by making “… all non-sensitive geospatial data, produced or maintained using taxpayer funds, a part of the public record.”

14 thoughts on “Restricting Access to National LiDAR: Is it worth it?

  1. Another great follow up by Christopher Crosby who writes:

    I think we’ve demonstrated with OpenTopography that when access to lidar is open and easy, the impact of the datasets, and thus the ROI, is large. We see an incredible diversity of users reusing data that were originally collected for academic research purposes.

    Another excellent example, similar to Fabrizio’s Danish report above, is the the US National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA – http://nationalmap.gov/3DEP/neea.html) which illustrates far greater benefit to open national lidar data than the associated costs.

  2. This sounds reminiscent of the national tidal harmonics. In the US the harmonics are freely available. Here, you need to license them from the Admiralty, with various tiers available depending on what you’re planning to do.

    OS maps are the same, I believe. The OS has a glorious DB with all the mapping data in it, and generate the various maps we use from that. End users then pay for patches, or license in various ways.

    I _belive_ in the socialist republic of America it’s normal for any publicly collected data to be made freely available. Ironic, really.

    For full disclosure, I’m an App developer and I’d love to get access to these databases for free.

    I tend to agree that if you’re targeting fairly niche use, the licensing costs represent a barrier to doing something. That’s on top of the fact that if they’re open, people will more readily think to use them.

  3. Pingback: The benefits of open data (again) | Here Comes the Flood

  4. Times are indeed changing soon. Awesome ACORN notice from the Environment Agency:

    “From 1 September 2015 all our LIDAR‬ data for England will become Open‬ Data‬ and everyone will be able to use it for free‬.”

    The corresponding blog article continues: “By making the LIDAR data open to all, users will be able to access it free of charge, even for commercial use. We hope that by removing any cost barriers, our data will improve the quality of flood risk modelling used by businesses and local communities and allow for the development of innovative tools and techniques to further benefit the environment.” Woot!!! Woot!!!

  5. Pingback: England Uploads Free Digital Model Of The Entire Country After Minecraft Players Ask For It | Gizmodo Australia

  6. Pingback: First Open LiDAR in Germany | rapidlasso GmbH

  7. Pingback: Scotland’s LiDAR goes Open Data (too) | rapidlasso GmbH

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