New Step-by-Step Tutorial for Velodyne Drone LiDAR from Snoopy by LidarUSA

The folks from Harris Aerial gave us LiDAR data from a test-flight of one of their drones, the Carrier H4 Hybrid HE (with a 5kg maximum payload and a retail price of US$ 28,000), carrying a Snoopy A series LiDAR system from LidarUSA in the countryside near Huntsville, Alabama. The laser scanner used by the Snoopy A series is a Velodyne HDL 32E that has 32 different laser/detector pairs that fire in succession to scan up to 700,000 points per second within a range of 1 to 70 meters. You can download the raw LiDAR file from the 80 second test flight here. As always, the first thing we do is to visualize the file with lasview and to generate a textual report of its contents with lasinfo.

lasview -i Velodyne001.laz -set_min_max 680 750

It becomes obvious that the drone must have scanned parts of itself (probably the landing gear) during the flight and we exploit this fact in the later processing. The information which of the 32 lasers was collecting which point is stored into the ‘point source ID’ field which is usually used for the flightline information. This results in a psychedelic look in lasview as those 32 different numbers get mapped to the 8 different colors that lasview uses for distinguishing flightlines.

The lasinfo report we generate computes the average point density with ‘-cd’ and includes histograms for a number of point attributes, namely for ‘user data’, ‘intensity’, ‘point source ID’, ‘GPS time’, and ‘scan angle rank’.

lasinfo -i Velodyne001.laz ^
        -cd ^
        -histo user_data 1 ^
        -histo point_source 1 ^
        -histo intensity 16 ^
        -histo gps_time 1 ^
        -histo scan_angle_rank 5 ^
        -odir quality -odix _info -otxt

You can download the resulting report here and it will tell you that the information which of the 32 lasers was collecting which point was stored both into the ‘user data’ field and into the ‘point source ID’ field. The warnings you see below have to do with the fact that the double-precision bounding box stored in the LAS header was populated with numbers that have many more decimal digits than the coordinates in the file, which only have millimeter (or millifeet) resolution as all three scale factors are 0.001 (meaning three decimal digits).

WARNING: stored resolution of min_x not compatible with x_offset and x_scale_factor: 2171988.6475160527
WARNING: stored resolution of min_y not compatible with y_offset and y_scale_factor: 1622812.606925504
WARNING: stored resolution of min_z not compatible with z_offset and z_scale_factor: 666.63504345017589
WARNING: stored resolution of max_x not compatible with x_offset and x_scale_factor: 2172938.973065129
WARNING: stored resolution of max_y not compatible with y_offset and y_scale_factor: 1623607.5209975131
WARNING: stored resolution of max_z not compatible with z_offset and z_scale_factor: 1053.092674726669

Both the “return number” and the “number of returns” attribute of every points in the file is 2. This makes it appear as if the file would only contain the last returns of those laser shots that produced two returns. However, as the Velodyne HDL 32E only produces one return per shot we can safely conclude that those numbers should all be 1 instead of 2 and that this is just a small bug in the export software. We can easily fix this with las2las.

reporting minimum and maximum for all LAS point record entries ...
 return_number 2 2
 number_of_returns 2 2

The lasinfo report lacks information about the coordinate reference system as there is no VLR that stores projection information. Harris Aerial could not help us other than telling us that the scan was near Huntsville, Alamaba. Measuring certain distances in the scene like the height of the house or the tree suggests that both horizontal and vertical units are in feet, or rather in US survey feet. After some experimenting we find that using EPSG 26930 for NAD83 Alabama West but forcing the default horizontal units from meters to US survey feet gives a result that aligns well with high-resolution Google Earth imagery as you can see below:

lasgrid -i flightline1.laz ^
        -i flightline2.laz ^
        -merged ^
        -epsg 26930 -survey_feet ^
        -step 1 -highest ^
        -false -set_min_max 680 750 ^
        -o testing26930usft.png

Using EPSG code 26930 but with US survey feet instead of meters results in nice alignment with GE imagery.

We use the fact that the drone has scanned itself to extract an (approximate) trajectory by isolating those LiDAR returns that have hit the drone. Via a visual check with lasview (by hovering with the cursor over the lowest drone hits and pressing hotkey ‘i’) we determine that the lowest drone hits are all above 719 feet. We use two calls to las2las to split the point cloud vertically. In the same call we also change the resolution from three to two decimal digits, fix the return number issue, and add the missing geo-referencing information:

las2las -i Velodyne001.laz ^
        -rescale 0.01 0.01 0.01 ^
        -epsg 26930 -survey_feet -elevation_survey_feet ^
        -set_return_number 1 ^
        -set_number_of_returns 1 ^
        -keep_z_above 719 ^
        -odix _above719 -olaz

las2las -i Velodyne001.laz ^
        -rescale 0.01 0.01 0.01 ^
        -epsg 26930 -survey_feet -elevation_survey_feet ^
        -set_return_number 1 ^
        -set_number_of_returns 1 ^
        -keep_z_below 719 ^
        -odix _below719 -olaz

We then use the manual editing capabilities of lasview to change the classifications of the LiDAR points that correspond to drone hits from 1 to 12, which is illustrated by the series of screen shots below.

lasview -i Velodyne001_above719.laz

The workflow illustrated above results in a tiny LAY file that is part of the LASlayers functionality of LAStools. It only encodes the few changes in classifications that we’ve made to the LAZ file without re-writing those parts that have not changed. Those interested may use laslayers to inspect the structure of the LAY file:

laslayers -i Velodyne001_above719.laz

We can apply the LAY file on-the-fly with the ‘-ilay’ option, for example, when running lasview:

lasview -i Velodyne001_above719.laz -ilay

To separate the drone-hit trajectory from the remaining points we run lassplit with the ‘-ilay’ option and request to split by classification with this command line:

lassplit -i Velodyne001_above719.laz -ilay ^
         -by_classification -digits 3 ^

This gives us two new files with the three-digit appendices ‘_001’ and ‘_012’. The latter one contains those points we marked as being part of the trajectory. We now want to use lasview to – visually – find a good moment in time where to split the trajectory into multiple flightlines. The lasinfo report tells us that the GPS time stamps are in the range from 418,519 to 418,602. In order to use the same trick as we did in our recent article on processing LiDAR data from the Hovermap Drone, where we mapped the GPS time to the intensity for querying it via lasview, we first need to subtract a large number from the GPS time stamps to bring them into a suitable range that fits the intensity field as done here.

lasview -i Velodyne001_above719_012.laz ^
        -translate_gps_time -418000 ^
        -bin_gps_time_into_intensity 1
        -steps 5000

The ‘-steps 5000’ argument makes for a slower playback (press ‘p’ to repeat) to better follow the trajectory.

Hovering with the mouse over a point that – visually – seems to be one of the turning points of the drone and pressing ‘i’ on the keyboard shows an intensity value of 548 which corresponds to the GPS time stamp 418548, which we then use to split the LiDAR point cloud (without the trajectory) into two flightlines:

las2las -i Velodyne001_below719.laz ^
        -i Velodyne001_above719_001.laz ^
        -merged ^
        -keep_gps_time_below 418548 ^
        -o flightline1.laz

las2las -i Velodyne001_below719.laz ^
        -i Velodyne001_above719_001.laz ^
        -merged ^
        -keep_gps_time_above 418548 ^
        -o flightline2.laz

Next we use lasoverlap to check how well the LiDAR points from the flight out and the flight back align vertically. This tool computes the difference of the lowest points for each square foot covered by both flightlines. Differences of less than a quarter of a foot are mapped to white, differences of more than half a foot are mapped to saturated red or blue depending on whether the difference is positive or negative:

lasoverlap -i flightline1.laz ^
           -i flightline2.laz ^
           -faf ^
           -min_diff 0.25 -max_diff 0.50 -step 1 ^
           -odir quality -o overlap_025_050.png

We then use a new feature of the LAStools GUI (as of version 180429) to closer inspect larger red or blue areas. We want to use lasmerge and clip out any region that looks suspect for closer examination with lasview. We start the tool in the GUI mode with the ‘-gui’ command and the two flightlines pre-loaded. Using the new PNG overlay roll-out on the left we add the ‘overlap_025_050_diff.png’ image from the quality folder created in the last step and clip out three areas.

lasmerge -i flightline1.laz -i flightline2.laz -gui

You can also clip out these three areas using the command lines below:

lasmerge -i flightline1.laz -i flightline2.laz ^
         -faf ^
         -inside 2172500 1623160 2172600 1623165 ^
         -o clip2500_3160_100x005.laz

lasmerge -i flightline1.laz -i flightline2.laz ^
         -faf ^
         -inside 2172450 1623450 2172550 1623455 ^
         -o clip2450_3450_100x005.laz

lasmerge -i flightline1.laz -i flightline2.laz ^
         -faf ^
         -inside 2172430 1623290 2172530 1623310 ^
         -o clip2430_3290_100x020.laz

A closer inspection of the three cut out slices explains the red and blue areas in the difference image created by lasoverlap. We find a small systematic error in two of the slices. In slice ‘clip2500_3160_100x005.laz‘ the green points from flightline 1 are on average slightly higher than the red points from flightline 2. Vice-versa in slice ‘clip2450_3450_100x005.laz‘ the green points from flightline 1 are on average slightly lower than the red points from flightline 2. However, the error is less than half a foot and only happens near the edges of the flightlines. Given that our surfaces are expected to be “fluffy” anyways (as is typical for Velodyne LiDAR systems), we accept these differences and continue processing.

The strong red and blue colors in the center of the difference image created by lasoverlap is easily explained by looking at slice ‘clip2430_3290_100x020.laz‘. The scanner was “looking” under a gazebo-like open roof structure from two different directions and therefore always seeing parts of the floor in one flightline that were obscured by the roof in the other.

While working with this data we’ve also implemented a new feature for lastrack that computes the 3D distance between LiDAR points and the trajectory and allows storing the result as an additional per point attribute with extra bytes. Those can then be visualized with lasgrid. Here an example:

lastrack -i flightline1.laz ^
         -i flightline2.laz ^
         -track Velodyne001_above719_012.laz ^
         -store_xyz_range_as_extra_bytes ^
         -odix _xyz_range -olaz ^
         =cores 2

lasgrid -i flightline*_xyz_range.laz -merged ^
        -drop_attribute_below 0 1 ^
        -attribute0 -lowest ^
        -false -set_min_max 20 200 ^
        -o quality/closest_xyz_range_020ft_200ft.png

lasgrid -i flightline*_xyz_range.laz -merged ^
        -drop_attribute_below 0 1 ^
        -attribute0 -highest ^
        -false -set_min_max 30 300 ^
        -o quality/farthest_xyz_range_030ft_300ft.png

Below the complete processing pipeline for creating a median ground model from the “fluffy” Velodyne LiDAR data that results in the hillshaded DTM shown here. The workflow is similar to those we have developed in earlier blog posts for Velodyne Puck based systems like the Hovermap and the Yellowscan.

Hillshaded DTM with a resolution of 1 foot generated via a median ground computation by the LAStools processing pipeline detailed below.

lastile -i flightline1.laz ^
        -i flightline2.laz ^
        -faf ^
        -tile_size 250 -buffer 25 -flag_as_withheld ^
        -odir tiles_raw -o somer.laz

lasnoise -i tiles_raw\*.laz ^
         -step_xy 2 -step 1 -isolated 9 ^
         -odir tiles_denoised -olaz ^
          -cores 4

lasthin -i tiles_denoised\*.laz ^
        -ignore_class 7 ^
        -step 1 -percentile 0.05 10 -classify_as 8 ^
        -odir tiles_thinned_1_foot -olaz ^
        -cores 4

lasthin -i tiles_thinned_1_foot\*.laz ^
        -ignore_class 7 ^
        -step 2 -percentile 0.05 10 -classify_as 8 ^
        -odir tiles_thinned_2_foot -olaz ^
        -cores 4

lasthin -i tiles_thinned_2_foot\*.laz ^
        -ignore_class 7 ^
        -step 4 -percentile 0.05 10 -classify_as 8 ^
        -odir tiles_thinned_4_foot -olaz ^
        -cores 4

lasthin -i tiles_thinned_4_foot\*.laz ^
        -ignore_class 7 ^
        -step 8 -percentile 0.05 10 -classify_as 8 ^
        -odir tiles_thinned_8_foot -olaz ^
        -cores 4

lasground -i tiles_thinned_8_foot\*.laz ^
          -ignore_class 1 7 ^
          -town -extra_fine ^
          -odir tiles_ground_lowest -olaz ^
          -cores 4

lasheight -i tiles_ground_lowest\*.laz ^
          -classify_between -0.05 0.5 6 ^
          -odir tiles_ground_thick -olaz ^
          -cores 4

lasthin -i tiles_ground_thick\*.laz ^
        -ignore_class 1 7 ^
        -step 1 -percentile 0.5 -classify_as 2 ^
        -odir tiles_ground_median -olaz ^
        -cores 4

las2dem -i tiles_ground_median\*.laz ^
        -keep_class 2 ^
        -step 1 -use_tile_bb ^
        -odir tiles_dtm -obil ^
        -cores 4

blast2dem -i tiles_dtm\*.bil -merged ^
          -step 1 -hillshade ^
          -o dtm_hillshaded.png

We thank Harris Aerial for sharing this LiDAR data set with us flown by their Carrier H4 Hybrid HE drone carrying a Snoopy A series LiDAR system from LidarUSA.

Fixing Intensity Differences between Flightlines (“quick and dirty”)

Visiting our users on-site, such as last week at Mariano Marcos State University in Ilocos Norte in the Philippines, we sometimes come across situations as pictured below where the intensity values of the returns of one flightline are drastically different from that of other flightlines.

The intensity of returns in the left most flightline is different from that of other flightlines.

The intensity of returns in the left most flightline is different from that of other flightlines.

Using intensity rasters with such dark strips as an additional input for land cover classification may likely make things worse. Radiometrically “correct” intensity calibration is a complex topic and may not always be possible to do using only the LAZ files without meta information such as the internals of the scanning system and the aircraft trajectory. However, we now describe a “quick and dirty” fix to the situation shown above so that the intensity grids (that were computed as averages of first return intensities) at least “look” as sensible as for the one square tile (shown below) that was corrected by a simple multiplication with 5 for all intensities of the dark strip.

Simply multiplying all intensities of the dark flightline with 5 seems to "fix" the issue.

Simply multiplying all intensities of the dark flightline with 5 seems to “fix” the issue for our test tile.

The number 5 was determined by a quick glance at the intensity histograms that we can generate with lasinfo. We decide to only look at single returns as we expect them to have a higher correlation: Their locations are more likely to be “seen similarly” from and their energy is more likely “reflected similarly” to different flightlines compared to that of multiple returns.

lasinfo -i strip1.laz strip2.laz strip3.laz ^
        -keep_single ^
        -histo intensity 1 ^
        -nmm -nh -nv ^
        -odix _histo_int -otxt

The resulting histograms for the dark ‘strip1.laz’ is quite different from that of the much brighter ‘strip2.laz’ and ‘strip3.laz’. The average single return intensity for the dark ‘strip1.laz’ is a meager 5.13 whereas the  brighter ‘strip2.laz’ and ‘strip3.laz’ have similar averages of 24.15 and 24.50 respectively.

Draw your own conclusion about which scale factor to use. We have the choice to match either the peak of the histograms or their averages. Scaling the peak of 3 for ‘strip1.laz’ to match the 25 of the other two strips is too much of an upscaling. But the average 24.15 divided by 5.13 gives a potential scale of 4.71 and the average 24.50 divided by 5.13 gives a potential scale of 4.77 and we already saw a multiplication by 5 giving reasonable results. So this is how we can fix the intensity:

las2las -i strip1.laz ^
        -scale_intensity 4.75 ^
        -odix _corr_int -olaz

But what if your data is already in tiles? How can you adjust only the intensity of those returns that are from the flightline 1? Assuming that your flightline information is properly stored in the point source ID field of every point this is easily done with the new ‘-filtered_transform’ in LAStools using las2las on as many cores as you have as follows:

las2las -i tiles/*.laz ^
        -keep_point_source 1 ^
        -filtered_transform ^
        -scale_intensity 4.75 ^
        -odir tiles_corr -olaz ^
        -cores 8

This is not currently exposed in the GUI of las2las but you can simply add it by typing it into the ‘RUN’ pop-up window as shown below.

Scaling only the intensities of flightline 1 by 4.9 using the new '-filtered_transform'.

Scaling only the intensities of flightline 1 by 4.9 using the new ‘-filtered_transform’.

After this “quick and dirty” intensity correction we again ran lasgrid as follows:

lasgrid -i tiles_corr/*.laz ^
        -gray -set_min_max 0 60 ^
        -odir tiles_int_rasters -opng ^
        -cores 8

And the result is shown below. The obvious flightline-induced discontinuity in the intensities has pretty much disappeared. Do you have similar flightline-related intensity issues? We like to hear from you whether this technique works or if we need to implement something more clever in the future …


Tutorial: editing LAS or LAZ files “by hand” with lasview

This tutorial describes how to manually edit LiDAR using the new inspection and editing functionality available in ‘lasview.exe’ with the latest release of LAStools (version 140301). We will work with the familiar ‘fusa.laz’ sample LiDAR data set from the LAStools distribution that was recently reported to have shown strange symptoms assumed to be side-effects of the LAZ cloning experiments in the ESRI labs … (-;

Inspecting LiDAR files with cross sections

Copy ‘fusa.laz’ from the folder ‘lastools\data’ to the folder ‘lastools\bin’. Run ‘lasview.exe’ so that it loads ‘fusa.laz’. Either do this via the GUI by double-clicking ‘lasview.exe’, loading ‘fusa.laz’ via the ‘browse …’ menu, and then clicking the ‘VIEW’ button or by entering the command below:

C:\lastools\bin>lasview -i fusa.laz

Press the <x> key to toggle to “select cross” where you can pick a rectangular “cross” section. The default cross section is a profile extending across the bottom of the bounding box.


By pressing the <x> key again you toggle back to actually view the cross section. Holding down <ALT> you can rotate the view to look at the cross section from the side. Holding down <CTRL> you can zoom in and out. Holding down <SHIFT> you can translate up and down or left and right. Increase or decrease the size of the points pressing <=> or <->. Hover with the mouse over a point and press <i> to inspect its coordinates and attributes.


Traverse the LiDAR file visually by moving the cross section with the arrow keys <UP> <DOWN> <LEFT> and <RIGHT>. You can move either in the “select cross” view and see the picked rectangle move or in the “cross” view and “walk” through the LiDAR. Hold down the <SHIFT> key simultaneously to take bigger steps or the <ALT> key to take smaller steps. Inspect other points by hovering over them with the cursor and pressing <i>. The point information disappears when pressing <i> with the cursor over the background.

tutorial4_lasview_03_traverse_with_arrow_keysToggle back to the “select cross” view with <x> and pick approximately the same rectangle as shown below:


Changing Classifications and Deleting Points

Continuing the steps above, toggle back to the “cross” view by pressing <x>. Note that part of the roof of the house has been miss-classified as vegetation while others are left unclassified. Press <e> to turn on the “EDIT” mode and right-click to select “reclassify points as building (6)” via the pop-up menu.


Now use the cross-hair cursor to draw a polygonal fence around all points that should be reclassified. Press <ESC> to remove the last vertex of the polygon if you miss-placed it by a mistake.

tutorial4_lasview_06_reclassify_fenceOnce you are happy with your polygon press <r> to register the edit. A note appears informing you how many points had their classification changed. In the top right corner an “undo” counter appears informing you how many changes you can undo by pressing <CTRL-u>. Try it. Immediataly the changes disappear and a “redo” counter appears instead. Press <CTRL-o> to redo the change you have just undone.


Press <CTRL-s> to save this edit as a tiny LAY file using the recently introduced LASlayers concept. In case there was already an existing LAY file (that was not applied with ‘-ilay’ when starting lasview) you will be warned and have to press <CTRL-f> to force overwriting it as shown below.


Press the key sequence <SHIFT-b>, <t>, and <a> to get the same visuals above.


Press <SHIFT-t> to remove the triangulation again. After saving an edit it can no longer be undone via <CTRL-u>. Instead you will have to strip off this particular layer with the layer management available through “laslayers.exe” as described here. Now press <x> to toggle to the “cross select” view.


Use the <DOWN> arrow to move the selected cross section to the area shown above that has a few unclassified points in the middle of the roof. Press <x> to go back to the “cross” view and try to understand why these points are not part of the roof. Looks like they are from the top of a chimney, and antenna, or a satellite dish as they do not fit the otherwise planar roof.

Assume we need to remove them for some reason. Pan, translate, and zoom the view such that these points can be easily surrounded by a polygon. Now press <d> to enter the “DELETE” mode, fence in these points, and press <r> to register the deletion.


It can be tricky to place a clearly seperating polygon and you may be worried about deleting a few orange building points as well. Press <u> to only display the unclassified points before pressing <r> to register the deletion.


Press <a> to see all points again, then delete the other two points by finding a good view point, pressing <d>, and drawing a polygon.


After registering this deletion of two points your “undo” counter should be at two. Press <CTRL-u> twice to undo this and the last deletion, then press <CTRL-o> twice to redo them both.


Now press <CTRL-s> to save this deletion as another layer. It will be appended to the LAY file that already contains one layer with the roof re-classification edit we did first. Press <t> to triangulate the points in the “cross” view. See how nicly flat the triangulated roofs are now that we deleted these 6 chimney points.


Look at the size of the tiny LAY file called ‘fusa.lay’ that is in the same folder as the ‘fusa.laz’ file. It contains all the edits we have done so far and mine is only 681 bytes in size. The original LAZ file has not changed. Maybe this is all you want for now. You could send only this tiny LAY file to a colleague elsewhere and he or she could apply those changes locally when needed using the ‘-ilay’ switches. For more on this see the LASlayers page.

C:\lastools\bin>lasview -i fusa.laz
C:\lastools\bin>lasview -i fusa.laz -ilay 1
C:\lastools\bin>lasview -i fusa.laz -ilay 2

However, you may want to eventually apply the changes and produce a new LAZ file. This will be a lot slower as it requires rewriting the entire file. It will also make changes permanent. Press <CTRL-a> and a new file is produced called ‘fusa_1.laz’ that has 6 points less than ‘fusa.laz’ and 69 points with a different classification as “building”. One more thing, press <CTRL-x> if you want to toggle between the “cross” section view and the default view.

tutorial4_lasview_14_applied_laslayers You need to have a license to LAStools to save edits for file that contain 1 million points or more.