Generating DTM for “fluffy” Livox MID-40 LiDAR via “median ground” points

In the last article about the Livox MID-40 LiDAR scan of Samara we quality checked the data, aligned the flight lines and cleaned the remaining spurious scan lines. In this article we will process this data into the standard products. A focus will be on generating a smooth “median ground” surface from the “fluffy” scanner data. You can get the flight lines here and follow along with the processing after downloading LAStools. Below is one result of this work.

The first processing step will be to tile the strips into tiles that contain fewer points for faster and also parallel processing. One quick “flat terrain” trick first. Often there are spurious points that are far above or below the terrain. For a relatively flat area these can be easily be identified by computing a histogram elevation values with lasinfo and then eliminated with simple drop-filters on the z coordinate.

lasinfo ^
-i Samara\Livox\03_strips_cleaned\*.laz ^
-merged ^
-histo z 1 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\01_quality ^
-o strips_cleaned_merged_info.txt

The relevant excerpts of the output of the lasinfo report are shown below:

[…]
z coordinate histogram with bin size 1.000000
bin -104 has 1
bin 5 has 1

bin 11 has 273762
bin 12 has 1387999
bin 13 has 5598767
bin 14 has 36100225
bin 15 has 53521371
[…]
bin 59 has 60308
bin 60 has 26313
bin 61 has 284
bin 65 has 10
bin 66 has 31
bin 67 has 12
bin 68 has 1
bin 83 has 3
bin 84 has 4
bin 93 has 31
bin 94 has 93
bin 95 has 17

[…]

The few points below 11 meters and above 61 meters in elevation can be considered spurious. In the initial tiling step with lastile we add simple elevation filters to drop those points on-the-fly from the buffered tiles. The importance of buffers when processing LiDAR in tiles is discussed in this article. With lastile we create tiles of size 125 meters with a buffer of 20 meters, while removing the points identified as spurious with the appropriate filters. Because the input strips have their “file source ID” in the LAS header correctly set, we use ‘-apply_file_source_ID’ to set the “point source ID” of every point to this value. This preserves the information of which point comes from which flight line.

lastile ^
-i Samara\Livox\03_strips_cleaned\*.laz ^
-drop_z_below 11 -drop_z_above 61 ^
-apply_file_source_ID ^
-tile_size 125 -buffer 20 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\05_tiles_buffered -o desman.laz

This produces 49 buffered tiles that will now be processed similarly to the workflow outlined for another lower-priced system that generates similarly “fluffy” point clouds on hard surfaces, the Velodyne HLD-32E, described here and here. What do we mean with “fluffy”? We cut out a 1 meter slice across the road with the new ‘-keep_profile’ filter and las2las and inspect it with lasview.

las2las ^
-i Samara\Livox\05_tiles_buffered\desman_331750_1093000.laz ^
-keep_profile 331790 1093071 331799 1093062 1 ^
-o slice.laz

lasview ^
-i slice.laz ^
-color_by_flightline ^
-kamera 0 274.922 43.7695 0.00195313 -0.0247396 1.94022 ^
-point_size 9

In the view below we pressed hot key twice ‘]’ to exaggerate the z scale. The “fuzziness” is that thickness of the point cloud in the middle of this flat tar road. It is around 20 to 25 centimeters and is equally evident in both flight lines. What is the correct ground surface through this 20 to 25 centimeter “thick” road? We will compute a “mean ground” that roughly falls into the middle of this “fluffy” surface,

slice of 1 meter width across the tar road in front of Omael store

The next three lasthin runs mark a sub set of low candidate points for our lasground filtering. In every 25 cm by 25 cm, every 33 cm by 33 cm and every 50 cm by 50 cm area we reclassify the point closest to the 10th percentile as class 8. In the first call to lasthin we put all other points into class 1.

lasthin ^
-i Samara\Livox\05_tiles_buffered\desman_*.laz ^
-set_classification 1 ^
-step 0.25 -percentile 10 20 -classify_as 8 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_01 -olaz ^
-cores 4


lasthin ^
-i Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_01\desman_*.laz ^
-step 0.3333 -percentile 10 20 -classify_as 8 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_02 -olaz ^
-cores 4


lasthin ^
-i Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_02\desman_*.laz ^
-step 0.5 -percentile 10 20 -classify_as 8 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_03 -olaz ^
-cores 4

Below you can see the resulting points of the 10th percentile classified as class 8 in red.

Operating only on the points classified as 8 (i.e. ignoring those classified as 1) we then run a ground classification with lasground using the following command line, which creates a “low ground” classification. .

lasground ^
-i Samara\Livox\06_tiles_thinned_03\desman_*.laz ^
-ignore_class 1 ^
-town -ultra_fine ^
-ground_class 2 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_low -olaz ^
-cores 4

Since this is an open road this classifies most of the red points as ground points.

Using lasheight we then create a “thick ground” by pulling all those points into the ground surface that are between 5 centimeter below and 17 centimeter above the “low ground”. For visualization purposes we temporarily use class 6 to capture this thickened ground.

lasheight ^
-i Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_low\desman_*.laz ^
-classify_between -0.05 0.17 6 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_thick -olaz ^
-cores 4

The “thick ground” is shown below in orange.

We go back to lasthin and reclassify in every 50 cm by 50 cm area the point closest to the 50th percentile as class 8. This is what we call the “median ground”.

lasthin ^
-i Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_thick\desman_*.laz ^
-ignore_class 1 ^
-step 0.5 -percentile 50 -classify_as 8 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_median -olaz ^
-cores 4

The final “median ground” points are shown in red below. These are the points we will use to eventually compute the DTM.

We complete the fully automated classification available in LAStools by running lasclassify with the following options. See the README file for what these options mean. Note that we move the “thick ground” from the temporary class 6 to the proper class 2. The “median ground” continues to be in class 8.

lasclassify ^
-i Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_median\desman_*.laz ^
-change_classification_from_to 6 2
^
-rugged 0.3 -ground_offset 1.5 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\08_tiles_classified -olaz ^
-cores 4

Before the resulting tiles are published or shared with others we should remove the temporary buffers, which is done with lastile – the same tool that created the buffers.

lastile ^
-i Samara\Livox\08_tiles_classified\desman_*.laz ^
-remove_buffer ^
-odir Samara\Livox\09_tiles_final -olaz ^
-cores 4

And then we can publish the points via a Potree 3D Webportal using laspublish.

laspublish ^
-i Samara\Livox\09_tiles_final\desman_*.laz ^
-elevation ^
-title "Samara Mangroves" ^
-odir Samara\Livox\99_portal -o SamaraMangroves.html -olaz ^
-overwrite

Below a screenshot of the resulting Potree 3D Web portal rendered with Potree Desktop. Inspecting the classification will reveal a number of errors that could be tweaked manually with lasview. How the point colors were generated is not described here but I used Google satellite imagery and mapped it with lascolor to the points. The elevation colors are mapped from 14 meters to 25 meters. The intensity image may help us understand why the black tar road on the left hand side that runs from the “Las Palmeras Condos” to the beach in “Cangrejal” has no samples. It seems the intensity is lower on this side which indicates that the drone may have flown higher here – too high to for the road to reflect enough photons. The yellow view of return type indicates that despite it’s multi-return capability, the Livox MID-40 LiDAR is mostly collecting single returns.

The penetration capability of the Livox MID-40 LiDAR was less good than we had hoped for. Below thick vegetation we have too few points on the ground to give us a good digital terrain model. In the visualization below you can see that below the dense vegetation there are large black areas which are completely void of points.

Now we produce the standard product DTM and DSM at a resolution of 50 cm. Because the total area is not that big we generate temporary tiles in “raster LAZ” with las2dem and merge them into a single GeoTiff with blast2dem.

las2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_median\desman_*.laz ^
-keep_class 8 ^
-step 0.5 -use_tile_bb ^
-odir Samara\Livox\10_tiles_dtm_50cm -olaz ^
-cores 4

blast2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\10_tiles_dtm_50cm*.laz -merged ^
-step 0.5 -hillshade ^
-o Samara\Livox\dtm_50cm.png

blast2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\10_tiles_dtm_50cm*.laz -merged ^
-step 0.5 ^
-o Samara\Livox\dtm_50cm.tif

lasthin ^
-i Samara\Livox\07_tiles_ground_median\desman_*.laz ^
-step 0.5 -percentile 95 ^
-odir Samara\Livox\11_tiles_highest -olaz ^
-cores 4

las2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\11_tiles_highest\desman_*.laz ^
-step 0.5 -use_tile_bb ^
-odir Samara\Livox\12_tiles_dsm_50cm -olaz ^
-cores 4

blast2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\12_tiles_dsm_50cm*.laz -merged ^
-step 0.5 -hillshade ^
-o Samara\Livox\dsm_50cm.png

blast2dem ^
-i Samara\Livox\12_tiles_dsm_50cm*.laz -merged ^
-step 0.5 ^
-o Samara\Livox\dsm_50cm.tif

A big “Thank You!” to Nelson Mattie from LiDAR Latinoamerica for bringing his fancy drone to Samara and to Andre Jalobeanu from Bayesmap for his help in aligning the data. You can download the flight lines here and do the above processing on your own after downloading LAStools.

Philippines use Taal Vulcano Eruption as Opportunity to become Very First Asian Country with Open LiDAR

UPDATE: As of January 30th also orthophotos and classified LAZ tiles are available for download.

It took just a few years of nagging, a vulcanic eruption, and then a few more weeks of nagging but now it has happened. The Philippines have become the first country in Asia to offering LiDAR as open data for free and unencumbered download. The portal created by the UP Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry (UP TCAGP) and their DREAM and PHIL LiDAR program already offers LiDAR-derived 1 meter DTM and DSM data flown between 2013 and 2017 as part of a national mission to aquire flood mapping data for a certain area around the Taal Vulcano. In the coming days orthophotos and the classified LiDAR point cloud will be added (at the moment the data is still undergoing another quality assurance review process).

As a quick test we went to the new online portal and downloaded the 34 DTM raster tiles that cover the Taal Vulcano Lake as seen in the screenshot below.

taal_vulcano_open_lidar_download_portal

Downloading the area-of-interest is easy with LiPAD’s nice download portal.

The downloaded 1 meter DTM tiles are in TIF format and each cover an area of 1000 by 1000 meter. However, they are overlapping because they have a 50 meter buffer, so that each raster contains elevation samples organized in 1100 columns by 1100 rows plus “no data” values. We use two LAStools commands to remove the buffers. First we use our new demzip to turn the TIF to RasterLAZ format. Use demzip from version 200131 of LAStools (or newer) as older releases did not handle “no data” values correctly.

demzip -i Taal\DTM\*.tif ^
       -olaz

The conversion from TIF to RasterLAZ also reduces the total file size for the 34 files from 157 MB to 27 MB. Next we remove the buffers using a new functionality in lasgrid (make sure you have the latest LAStools version 200112 or newer).

lasgrid -i Taal\DTM\*.laz ^
        -step 1 ^
        -use_tile_size 1000 ^
        -odir Taal\DTM_unbuffered ^
        -olaz

Without buffers the total file size in RasterLAZ format shrinks to 22 MB. Now we have the data in a format that can either be treated as a raster or as a point cloud. Hence we can use laspublish and quickly create a visualization of the Taal Vulcano Island with Potree which we then copied onto our university Web space for you to play with.  This was he are able to instantly create an 3D visualization portal that lets anyone do various simple and also more complex measurements.

laspublish -i Taal\DTM_unbuffered ^
           -elevation ^
           -odir Taal\DTM_portal ^
           -o TaalVulcanoIsland.html ^
           -title "DTM of Taal Vulcano Island" ^
           -description "DTM of Taal Vulcano Island" ^
           -olaz -overwrite

Below we see the result visualized with the Desktop version of Potree. You can access the interactive portal we have created here with any Web browser.

taal_vulcano_open_lidar_dtm

Visualizing the 1 meter DTM of Taal Vulcano Island as RasterLAZ point cloud with Potree to instantly create interactive portal allowing simple measurements that give an intuition about the height and the size of the vulcanic formation that makes up Taal Vulcano Island.

We would like to acknowledge the UP Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry (UP TCAGP) and their DREAM and PHIL LiDAR program for providing easy and unencumbered open access to this data with a license that encourages data reuse and repurposing. Kudos for being first in Asia to make open LiDAR happen!!!

LASmoons: Gabriele Garnero

Gabriele Garnero (recipient of three LASmoons)
Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning
Politecnico e Università degli Studi, Torino
ITALY

Background:
Last spring, the LARTU research group produced a laser scanner survey of the Abbey of Sant’Andrea in Vercelli, on the occasion of the VIII centenary of the dedication (1219). The database produced with a topographic tool that integrates the potential of a total station with laser scanner and photogrammetric sensors (Trimble SX 10), has been used to produce representations that can be consulted in interactive mode, navigating within the point clouds and producing a consultation platform that can also be accessed by non-specialist users such as art historians or archaeologists.

lasmoons_gabriele_garnero_0

Goal:
The LAStools software will be used to improve both the point cloud produced by eliminating the remaining noises, and check other ways of publishing the data, so as to make it usable from outside, to the community of researchers.

Data:
+
laser scanner and photogrammetric acquisitions of the interior of the building (150 millions of points)
+ laser scanner and photogrammetric acquisitions of the outside of the building (210 millions of points)
+ drone-based shooting of outdoor areas processed with Pix4D (23 millions of points)

LAStools processing:
1) tile large point cloud into tiles with buffer [lastile]
2) mark set of points whose z coordinate is a certain percentile of that of their neighbors [lasthin]
3) remove isolated low points from the set of marked points [lasnoise]
4) classify marked points into ground and non-ground [lasground]
5) creates a LiDAR portal for 3D visualization of LAS files [laspublish]

New ‘laspublish’ creates Web Portals for 3D Viewing and Downloading of LiDAR

PRESS RELEASE (for immediate release)
February 18, 2016
rapidlasso GmbH, Gilching, Germany

Just in time for ILMF 2016, the makers of the open LASzip LiDAR compressor annouce the latest addition to their LiDAR processing software LAStools. The new ‘laspublish‘ from rapidlasso GmbH creates stand-alone Web Portals for interactive 3D viewing of LiDAR points and for selective downloading of LAZ or LAS files. The new tool is based on the cutting-edge streaming point cloud viewing technology of Potree that optimizes large LiDAR point clouds for streaming via the Web such that anyone can visualize, explore, and (optionally) download them with any modern browser.

3D viewer and download portal created with 'laspublish'

3D viewer and download portal created with ‘laspublish’

The interactive 3D viewer streams on demand only the relevant parts of the point clouds. It not only visualizes the LiDAR in many useful and intuitive ways, but is also equipped with measurement tools to calculate distances or areas and profile or clipping tools for close-up inspections. With its integrated LASzip compression, options to color LiDAR by classification, return type, intensity, and point source ID, stunning visuals via Eye Dome Lighting (EDL), and the optional 2D download map, the new ‘laspublish‘ empowers professional and novice users alike to create stand-alone LiDAR Webportals with just a few button clicks.

a few clicks and 'laspublish' creates a professional LiDAR portal

a few clicks and ‘laspublish’ creates a professional LiDAR portal

The new ‘laspublish‘ is now an integral part of the LAStools software and is bundled together with all necessary components of the Potree software. It provides an instant and cost-effective solution for generating a set of Web pages that realize a self-contained LiDAR portal offering interactive online visualization and exploration as well as easy and intuitive distribution of large LiDAR data sets via the optional download map.

About rapidlasso GmbH:
Technology powerhouse rapidlasso GmbH specializes in efficient LiDAR processing tools that are widely known for their high productivity. They combine robust algorithms with efficient I/O and clever memory management to achieve high throughput for data sets containing billions of points. The company’s flagship product – the LAStools software suite – has deep market penetration and is heavily used in industry, government agencies, research labs, and educational institutions. Visit http://rapidlasso.com for more information. As the only Diamond sponsor, rapidlasso GmbH has been the main financial supporter of the open source Potree package by Markus Schütz over the past two years.

About Potree:
Potree is a WebGL based viewer for large point clouds. The project evolved as a Web based viewer from the Scanopy desktop point cloud renderer by TU Wien, Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms. It will continue to be free and open source with a FreeBSD license to enable anyone to view, analyze and publicly share their large datasets. Visit http://potree.org for more information.

Potree puts Big and Beautiful LiDAR in Your Browser

PRESS RELEASE (for immediate release)
September 14, 2015
rapidlasso GmbH, Gilching, Germany

Just in time for INTERGEO 2015, the Potree software was released in its latest 1.3 version. Potree is a WebGL based point cloud viewer for very large datasets. The Potree software allows to publish large LiDAR point clouds on the Web such that anyone can explore the data with nothing more but a modern browser. The interactive 3D viewer not only visualizes the LiDAR in many useful and intuitive ways but also comes with tools to perform various measurements. As its only Gold Sponsor, rapidlasso GmbH is the main supporter of this powerful open source package by Markus Schütz.

17.7 billion points around San Simeon,, CA courtesy of Open Topography

17.7 billion points from San Simeon, CA courtesy of Open Topography

The long-term sponsorship of rapidlasso GmbH has directly supported a number of useful features such as the integration of our award-winning LASzip compressor using the pure javascript version contributed by Hobu Inc, optimization for massive airborne LiDAR data, profile selection, tools for distance and area measurements, options to color by classification, return type, and point source ID, and a clipping tool. The particular features sponsored in the most recent 1.3 release of Potree are the incredible Eye Dome Lighting (EDL) and faster data conversion for large data sets. A number of interesting showcases (including the CA13 example shown here) are available on the Potree page.

In the near future the Potree software will be distributed together with the LAStools package to offer a one-click solution for generating Webportals that host and distribute large LiDAR data sets and offer interactive online visualization and exploration. Potree is open source software that is free for anyone to acquire and to deploy. Please remember that using open source software is not the same as supporting open source software. Given the positive experience that rapidlasso GmbH has had with Potree we can only encourage other geospatial companies to support with time or money those open source projects that help your business.

About rapidlasso GmbH:
Technology powerhouse rapidlasso GmbH specializes in efficient LiDAR processing tools that are widely known for their high productivity. They combine robust algorithms with efficient I/O and clever memory management to achieve high throughput for data sets containing billions of points. The company’s flagship product – the LAStools software suite – has deep market penetration and is heavily used in industry, government agencies, research labs, and educational institutions. Visit http://rapidlasso.com for more information.

About Potree:
Potree is a WebGL based viewer for large point clouds. The project evolved as a Web based viewer from the Scanopy desktop point cloud renderer by TU Wien, Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms. It will continue to be free and open source with a FreeBSD license to enable anyone to view, analyze and publicly share their large datasets. Visit http://potree.org for more information.